Welcome to Motivation Monday!
Today we look at some of the other things we do as part of the Army Reserve.
Do we always go to the field? Do we always sit in classes?
Though it seems like it sometimes, here is an example of something Reserve Soldiers are doing for their communities.
Good Morning Wildcats!
What is the new Physical Fitness Test going to look like?
For Frequently Asked Friday, we share an announcement about the new Physical Fitness Test that has been approved by the DA.
Please see the attached for additional information and descriptions.
Good Morning Wildcats!
This week’s Throwback Thursday recognizes the 100th anniversary of the Warrant Officer cohort.
If one was to ask a Soldier to describe a “Chief”, responses would vary: perhaps a grizzled old warrant officer standing in the middle of a maintenance shop with a cup of coffee in hand. Maybe a meticulous human resource specialist in an S1, perhaps the leader of an Army band. Ask the same Soldier to describe a “Mine Planter” and you will most likely get a blank stare. Yet, the Army’s Warrant Officer Corps traces its beginnings to the Mine Planter Service, which was established on 9 July 1918.
The grade of warrant officer dates back to the early days of the British Royal Navy. Officers of the Royal Navy were commissioned from the gentry, and often lacked vital seamanship skills. To assist the commissioned officers, the Royal Navy created a class of skilled boats mates to manage the day to day aspects of ship handling, navigation and gunnery. The mates were distinguished from common seamen by the issuance of a Royal Warrant which granted limited privileges and responsibilities less than commissioned officers. This practice of issuing warrants to long service skilled experts carried over into the United States Navy.
From the American Civil War to the end of the 19th Century, submerged containers filled with high explosives (known as torpedoes) were used as defensive weapons to prevent a hostile navy from penetrating American harbors. The electrically fired torpedoes were operated by the Engineers, while the guns overlooking the torpedo fields were manned by Artillerymen.
As the Army entered the 20th century, it reorganized to better incorporate the skilled technical specialists into the traditional branches and arms. In 1901, the Artillery branch was reorganized with Field Artillery supporting infantry regiments, while the Coastal Artillery branch was tasked to protect vulnerable Americans ports and coasts. The Coastal Artillery Corps grew in complexity, with the addition of modern electrically powered guns, searchlights and fire control equipment. To better improve command and control of the entire harbor defense scheme, the Coastal Artillery Corps took control of the “torpedo” or “mine planting” service in 1904. The Army procured a small flotilla of craft that were refitted with the equipment necessary to emplace and service both contact and command detonated mines. From 1904to 1918, the mine tenders were operated by civilians, with the master under the orders of an artillery officer. The artillery officer also supervised a crew of enlisted specialists who handled the dangerous job of planting and maintaining the mines. Naturally, friction arose with a dual civilian/military crew arrangement, with the civilians chafing under military authority, while the officers complained of the constant turnover in civilian crews.
Congress solved the problem on 9 July 1918 by establishing a new Army Mine Planter Service which authorized the appointment of forty warrant officer specialists who were to manage operations of the mine tenders and systems. The act also formally established a single grade of Warrant Officer with three different pay levels for masters, mates and engineers.
To differentiate themselves from commissioned officers, warrant officers wore stripes of brown cloth on their sleeves as insignia of rank. Deck officers were distinguished with an embroidered brown fouled anchor above the braid, while engineer officers wore an embroidered brown three-bladed propeller in a similar position.
A sizeable number of the newly minted warrant officers were former tender masters, mates and engineers who performed their same duties, but not under military authority. To train new warrant officers for service in the wartime Mine Planter Service, the Army created a Mine Planter school at Fort Monroe ran by a Naval Academy educated Army officer.
After the World War, the Army recognized the need to retain a warrant officer corps, and petitioned Congress to make the corps permanent. The Act of 1920 authorized 1120 warrant officers to fill clerical, administrative and bandleader positions. Most interestingly, the Act also created branch immaterial warrant officer appointments as a way to not only reward long serving enlisted members, but for retaining certain former commissioned officers no longer eligible to remain in service.
During the interwar years, warrant officer authorizations and strength dropped significantly until the Army held competitive exams in 1936 to resume appointing quality Soldiers as Regular Army warrant officers. During World War II, the role of the warrant officer greatly expanded to perform vital technical services in more than forty specialties, including flight officers and crew, band leaders and personnel specialists.
Congress authorized appointments up to 1% of the total Regular Army enlisted strength, and created the Warrant Officer, Junior Grade (W-1) and Chief Warrant Officer (CW-2) pay rates. For example, the Table of Organization & Equipment (TO&E) of the 81st Infantry Division authorized 16 CW-2 and 27 Warrant Officer Junior Grade (WOJG), with the largest contingent in the Divisional Artillery. By the end of the war, around 57,000 Army warrant officers (42 of which were female) were deployed around the globe...
After a brief period of post-war contraction, the Army resumed the movement towards a professionalized Warrant Officer Corps. In 1949, Congress adding a Chief Warrant Officer 3 and 4 grade, and soon thereafter the role of the warrant officer was codified in Army Regulation 611-112: "The Warrant Officer is a highly skilled technician who is provided to fill those positions above the enlisted level which are too specialized in scope to permit effective development and continued utilization of broadly trained, branch qualified commissioned officers."
In 1960, the Army standardized the selection and training of warrant officers, and created a Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) structure to guide training and assignments. New rank insignia, silver bars with black squares corresponding to rank, appeared in 1972, and in 1978 Reserve Component (RC) warrant officers were integrated into the Army Professional Developmental system. A significant change to the role of the warrant officer came in 1986 with the amendment of Title 10 USC to include the commissioning of Army Chief Warrant Officers, which equalized appointment procedures across all services.
Afterwards, the Army issued new guidance to clarify the change: "Warrant Officers are highly specialized, single-track specialty officers who receive their authority from the Secretary of the Army upon their initial appointment. However, Title 10 U.S.C., authorizes the commissioning of Warrant Officers (WO1) upon promotion to chief Warrant Officer (CW2). These commissioned Warrant Officers are direct representatives of the president of the United States. They derive their authority from the same source as commissioned officers but remain specialists, in contrast to commissioned officers, who are generalists. Warrant Officers can and do command detachments, units, activities, and vessels as well as lead, coach, train, and counsel subordinates. As leaders and technical experts, they provide valuable skills, guidance, and expertise to commanders and organizations in their particular field." (Para A-3, Field Manual 22-100)
In 1991, Congress passed the Warrant Officer Management Act (WOMA) which streamlined the promotion system, added tenure rules and established the grade of CW5. The first CW5 positions in the Army Reserve were added in 1988-89 at the Office of the Chief of the Army Reserve (OCAR) and United States Army Reserve Command (USARC).
1993 saw the consolidation of Warrant Officer Candidate (WOC) training at Fort Rucker and the implementation of a new Warrant Officer Education System (WOES). In 2004 the Army implemented colored branch insignia on the Army Service Uniform (ASU) and a new CW5 insignia, a black line centered on a silver bar.
Created in 1918 to manage a highly specialized weapon system in the Coastal Artillery, the Warrant Officer cohort has grown to become an integral part of the total Army, bridging the technical specialist gap between commissioned officers and non-commissioned officers (NCOs). Army warrant officers serve in 43 distinct specialties within seventeen branches, and form the technical foundation of the U.S. Army.
Good Morning Wildcats!
Today's Watch Us Wednesday;
For Today's Trivia Tuesday;
How do Soldiers get credentialed through the US Army?
Date Published: 25 Jun 18
On 6 June 2018, The Secretary of the Army signed Army Directive 2018-08, establishing the Army's Credentialing Assistance (CA) Program with an effective date of 6 September 2018. This program allows eligible Soldiers to
receive funding for courses or exams that lead to an industry-recognized academic or vocational credential.
Although, the CA Program starts on 6 September 2018, only Soldiers participating in the Limited User Test (Regular Army Soldiers stationed at Fort Hood, TX, ARNG Soldiers, and TX, USAR Soldiers) will be able to request CA starting on this date for courses or exams scheduled after 1 October 2018. The list of credentials that Soldiers can request funding for during
the LUT is currently limited to 29 credentials. The list will be provided to LUT participants.
Soldiers stationed outside of Texas are not currently eligible to receive CA. We anticipate Army-wide implementation of the CA program in late 2019 and will provide notification when all Soldiers can request CA.
Soldiers with questions about the CA program should contact their servicing Army education center/office. A list of centers/offices can be at:
Fort Knox, KY
For more information,
Army Continuing Education System (ACES)
Another Motivation Monday!
Congratulations to the Army Reserve Marksmanship Program!
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For Motivation Monday,
We're lighting the skies our way 🎇🇺🇸
Happy Independence Day from America's Army Reserve.
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Today is “Frequently asked Friday”
Today's question is an update for "How do I get in touch with the 81st RD?"
Here are a few helpful numbers to the sections that most of you call us about:
HHC Unit Administrator- 803-751-6844
Human Resources is now (G-1):
Personnel Actions- 803-751-9843
Health Services- 803-751-2999
Family Programs- 803-751-9654
The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255) Press 1 for the Military Crisis Line
For Alcohol or Drug abuse issues:
Fort Family Outreach & Support Center: 1-866-345-8248 or www.arfp.org
Resource Management is now (G-8):
FOR information regarding personnel actions at HRC:
We do not maintain records for those who previously served.
If you are a Veteran and would like to contact someone about your personnel records;
HRC - 888-276-9472 or VA records line: 703-607-1611
You can also visit:
Good morning Wildcats!
Welcome to Throwback Thursday!
On Independence Day;
The U.S. Army began broadcasting from London during World War II, using equipment and studio facilities borrowed from the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).
The first transmission to U.S. troops began at 5:45 p.m. July 4, 1943, and included less than five hours of recorded shows, a BBC news and sports broadcast. That day, Corporal Syl Binkin became the first U.S. military broadcaster heard over the air. The signal was sent from London via telephone lines to five regional transmitters to reach U.S. troops in the United Kingdom as they made preparations for the invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe.
Fearing competition for civilian audiences, the BBC initially tried to impose restrictions on AFN broadcasts within Britain (transmissions were allowed only from American Bases outside London and were limited to 50 watts of transmission power) and a minimum quota of British produced programming had to be carried. Nevertheless, AFN programs were widely enjoyed by the British civilian listeners who could receive them, and once AFN operations transferred to continental Europe (shortly after D-Day) AFN was able to broadcast with little restriction with programs available to civilian audiences across most of Europe, (including Britain), after dark.
As D-Day approached, the network joined with the BBC and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation to develop programs especially for the Allied Expeditionary Forces. Mobile stations, complete with personnel, broadcasting equipment and a record library, were deployed to broadcast music and news to troops in the field. The mobile stations reported on front-line activities and fed the news reports back to studio locations in London.
Although the network's administrative headquarters remained in London, its operational headquarters soon moved to AFN Paris.
As Allied forces continued to push German troops back into their homeland, AFN moved east as well. The liberation of most of Western Europe saw AFN stations serving the forces liberating Biarritz, Cannes, Le Havre, Marseille, Nice, Paris and Reims.
Today's Motivation Monday, we look at Retirement.
This Saturday is a Retirement Services Brief being conducted in Nashville, Tennessee.
Please see the attached flyer if you are interested in attending.
Good Morning Wildcats!
For today's Motivation Monday, we look at PME (Primary Military Education) The attached policy has been in place for Deployed Soldiers and has not been retracted.
Due to the OPTEMPO, the Army has provided guidance and a template for use to seek an exception to policy (ETP) for promotion for deployed Soldiers.
Deferment to Professional Military Education (PME) / ETP Promotion Semi-Centralized Promotions (for SM on TCS orders with no opportunity to attend PME). The Army policy in regards to STEP remains unchanged as PME continues to remain a promotion pin-on requirement. An ETP may be considered when Soldiers meet the following criteria:
1. Fully qualified for promotion (except for PME)
2. Operationally deployed
3. Lack of training opportunity
4. Otherwise fully eligible to attend PME
5. Possess the skills required of the next grade
6. Previously have met/exceeded announced cutoff score
7. Commander verifies Soldier has the capacity to serve at the higher grade
8. Commander must verify they will prioritize PME training to affected Soldier upon redeployment
If a Soldier is promoted under the ETP for the criteria stated above, the following must be advised:
1. Must be processed though the chain of command, including the ACOM/ASCC they are assigned (HRC will only accept if signed off by the ACOM/ASCC)
2. May be delayed up to one month (administrative process) and will not be retroactive
3. Does not relieve the NCO from completing the PME required for the grade to which promoted
4. Disqualifies the NCO for future promotion eligibility until PME is completed
To continue to groom Army leaders of tomorrow, the Army challenges our leaders to ensure that we send our Soldiers to their respective PME as soon the opportunities becomes available.
The point of contact for this policy change is:
SGM Derek D. Johnson, Army
G-1 Sergeant Major.
Here is the Holiday Safety Message from the 81st RD Safety Office
Enjoy your Independence Day!
Good Morning Wildcats!
Welcome to Frequently Asked Friday,
Does the Army have more boats than the Navy?
The Army had the largest seagoing fleet in World War II, but now has only 118 watercraft in total. While the Navy certainly has more vessels than this, nitpickers will insist that most Navy vessels are "ships," and so the Army could still have more "boats."
Well, the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command has 354 craft. The smallest are its Zodiac inflatable boats and the largest are its 85′ MK VI patrol boats. Also, there are the 700 craft of Naval Special Warfare, mostly 81-foot boats and smaller. So, yeah, the Navy seems to have this in the bag. And that's without counting Ships.
Welcome to Throwback Thursday!
Army Field History Program
Since the Readiness Divisions are assuming Mission Command of the Military History Detachments (MHD) in the Army Reserve, this week’s Throwback Thursday will share some history about the Army Field History program.
The modern Army history program began in 1918 with the establishment of the Historical Branch of the War Plans Division in the Army’s General Staff. The Historical Branch worked to write historical monographs based on information gathered during World War I. The effort was hindered by the lack of trained military historians within the American Expeditionary Force.
In the early days of American involvement during World War II, the Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall ordered the creation of a Historical Branch within the Military Intelligence Division. In August 1943, General Marshall ordered the Historical Branch was to begin working on a series of historical monographs for internal Army use – similar to the modern Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) process.
Lieutenant Colonel (LTC) Samuel Marshall, more commonly known as S.L.A. or “Slam” Marshall, was charged to develop procedures for performing historical research in a combat theater. In October 1943, Marshall deployed to the central Pacific at the head of an ad-hoc history team to document the operations of the 7th Infantry Division campaign in the Gilbert Islands.
An interwar newspaper reporter and Organized Reserve officer, Marshall drew on his World War experiences and reporter skills to plan his collection mission. Crucially, Marshall implemented the use of after-action and group interviews as a method of capturing key details of an engagement from the surviving participants. Marshall’s collection techniques not only provided lessons-learned to planners and commanders, but provided rich historical details for the General Staff historians back at the War Department.
Based on LTC Marshall’s experiences in the Pacific, the War Department organized Information and Historical Service (I&HS) units in April 1944. Led by a lieutenant colonel who functioned both as senior historian and Army command historian, each unit had a writing team (one officer, two enlisted historians, and a clerk-typist), which were supported by a flexible number of “contact teams.”
Staffed with two officers and two Soldiers, the contact units collected records and oral history recordings, which were used by the monograph team to produce history reports published as Army Forces in Action monographs. During the war, the Army activated nine I&HS units, supported by 36 contact teams, with around 300 officers and Soldiers involved in the Army history program. Although some dissatisfaction was experienced with the first generation military history units, the Army found the units valuable enough to retain in the postwar Army.
One I&HS unit was retained on active status until 1949 to help with collection of data incorporated into the “Green Book” Army in World War II series. Twenty-six additional units (of two officers and two Soldiers each) were assigned to the Organized Reserve Corps.
By 1949, the Army reorganized I&HS teams into Military History Detachments: A teams of three historians (two officers, one non-commissioned officer), a clerk-typist and driver to support a theater command; corps level B teams with one major, one clerk and a driver; C teams for division level missions with a captain, clerk and driver. Gone were public affairs and writing tasks, instead the history units were intended to collect documents, information and oral history recordings for analysis by the theater command, as well as the historians at the Office, Chief of Military History (OCMH).
After the outbreak of the Korean War, the Army disbanded the Organized Reserve history units and activated new “A” “B” and “C” teams. A number of teams were sent to Europe, and only one “A” team, three “B” teams and four “C” Military History Detachments (MHD) were deployed to Korea. The MHDs proved fairly successful, although not enough to completely cover the entire Korean theater of operations.
After the Korean War, the history detachments were inactivated until 1963, when two man (officer historian and clerk-driver) detachments were activated in the Regular Army. By 1970, the Army had 26 teams deployed in Vietnam, with smaller numbers in Europe and the Pacific. The core mission of the history teams remained document and interview collection, although the teams could assist the theater historian in writing historical monographs. For the units deployed to Vietnam, the quality and quantity of collection efforts varied greatly depending on the skills of the individual team members and support derived from the attached command.
After Vietnam, all but one of the Regular Army detachments were inactivated. In 1967-68 a dozen military history detachments were activated in the Army Reserve, with an additional four added to the Army National Guard in 1980.
During Desert Storm seven MHDs deployed to Kuwait and Saudi Arabia; with that experience the Army realized the need for additional detachments. By 1998, ten additional MHDs had been activated in the USAR, and one more in the National Guard.
With US involvement in Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, the demand for MHDs skyrocketed. For example, two MHDs were activated immediate after 9/11, and collected oral histories from the survivors and Army responders at the Twin Towers and the Pentagon. From 2002 to 2015, more than 60 separate MHD rotations had taken place in Iraq and Afghanistan. As a consequence of the increased demand for MHDs, additional teams were activated in both the USAR and National Guard. Today, there are 37 MHDs in all three components: two in the Regular Army; 28 in the Army Reserve and 7 in the National Guard. Six are two-person “A” teams with a Colonel (O-6) Theater Historian and Lieutenant Colonel Deputy Historian. The A teams are designed to perform theater history missions, normally in support of a corps or theater level headquarters. Twenty-eight are 3 person “B” teams: a Major (O-4) Historian, and two Public Affairs noncommissioned officers (NCOs). The B teams are the workhorses of the MHD world, performing collection missions at division and brigade combat team (BCT) levels. Lastly, there are three “C” teams, with two Public Affairs NCOs, which are designed to augment an A or B team for a large history mission.
On 1 October 2018, the 81st Readiness Division is slated to assume mission command of nine MHDs in the area of operations: 20th MHD (A team); 45th, 46th, 54th, 317th and 322d MHDs (B Teams); and the 23d, 24th and 28th MHDs (C Teams).
Here is a message from the Commanding General of the 81st RD,
Remember, Safety First!
Welcome to Watch Us Wednesday!
Today we are watching the competitors in the 2018 (Final) Best Warrior Competition.
Good Morning Wildcats!
For today's Trivia Tuesday,
What, according to AR 140-111, US Army Reserve Reenlistment Program, is the requirement for signing a reenlistment contract after your first 6 year enlistment?
As of 19 June 2018, Army Reserve enlistees are authorized the signing of an exception to policy for reenlistment contracts up to 24 months from the end of your contract. In effect doubling the authorized 12 months for Soldiers who may be able to take advantage of Bonus opportunities they would have missed out on, if they have to wait until their 12 month window.
See the attached memo for additional information,
Welcome to Motivation Monday!
Today we will look at Ready Force X!
For today's Frequently Asked Friday;
What options are available for Soldiers who left service or active duty who miss the service life and are looking for a way to get back in?
The 81st Readiness Division is looking for some motivated Soldiers and former Soldiers who want to continue their service...
Good Morning Wildcats!
For today's Throwback Thursday we look at:
In a bid to improve efficiency, the Secretary of the Army recently announced the elimination of the Multi-Source Assessment and Feedback (MSAF) requirement for the Department of the Army (DA) Form 67-10, the Officer Evaluation Reports (OER). For senior officers, a change in how the Army evaluates officers is not unusual, as the modern Army has a habit of routinely revamping how officers are evaluated. What most officers don’t know is that the Army had employed some version of a fitness report since the Revolutionary War, a story that we’ll discuss in this week’s Throwback Thursday.
Throughout written history, military commanders have evaluated the performance of their subordinate officers. Officer commissions and promotions were tied to a particular regiment, so it was natural the regimental commander made decisions on promotions based on personal observation. When the Continental Army was formed in 1776, General George Washington introduced the first version of an OER by ordering battalion commanders to make written reports of all officers in their commands. Armed with the written evaluations, Washington could make promotion decisions on officers within the Army. By 1813, the Secretary of War had implemented a requirement for each regimental commander to submit a report in which all officers of a particular rank were graded from top to bottom. One such report included such comments as: “Clark Crowell-first Major-A good man but no officer” and “Captain Shaw-A man of whom all unite in speaking ill-A knave despised by all.”
The practice of consolidated fitness reports continued in the Regular Army during the next century, from the War of 1812 to well after the Civil War. The decades after the Civil War saw efforts within the Army to increase the professionalism of Army officers. One such effort resulted in the introduction of a systematic evaluation and promotion system. In 1890, the Secretary of War removed promotion authority for officers from the regimental commander in favor of a centralized Army-wide system. Key to the success of the new promotion system was a detailed written evaluation report on every commissioned officer: “A record will be kept in the War Department of the services, efficiency, and special qualifications of officers of the Army, including the condition of their commands and the percentage of desertion therefrom, and from further reports made for that purpose.”
In 1917, the Army abandoned the lengthy annual report as being too impractical for the mobilized American Expeditionary Force, instead adopting a simpler two sided form. In the post-World War I period, the Army drew on industrial psychology theory to identify personality traits of good leaders, and develop graphic rating scales to rank order officers from best to worst based on their efficiency in carrying out their military duties.
After World War II, the Army employed the latest scientific and psychological research in implementing the War Department (WD) Form 67-1, the officer evaluation report. Integral to the new OER was a relative score scale, which made comparisons among officers of the same rank, and included a forced choice rating scale. From the 1947 WD Form 67-1 to the Department of the Army (DA) Form 67-8 in 1979, the seven revisions of the OER were intended to create a fair but objective way to identify the best officers in the Army. A constant throughout was the use of a numeric rating scheme which allowed Army data processors to quickly rank order officers of a particular grade. Army senior leaders found the series of OERs as flawed, as they were subject to rating inflation and did not allow the rating chain to make substantive comments about the rated officer.
As a result, the Army introduced the DA Form 67-8 in 1979 which discarded the mandatory numeric score in favor of a forced distribution ranking system by the senior rater. To help clarify ratings to centralized management boards, both rater and senior rater made mandatory comments addressing particularly good or poor aspects of the rated officer. To help improve the quality of the rating process, requirements for a support form (approved goals and objectives) and performance counseling were added to the evaluation process.
The DA 67-8 version proved well enough for the Army to use it from 1979 through 1997, when rampant profile inflation (brought about by the post-Desert Storm drawdown) forced the next version of the OER. To address the problem with rating profile inflation, the Army implemented a quota system in the DA 67-9. The number of Above Center of Mass (ACOM) ratings the senior rater could dispense was limited to 49%, which forced the senior rater to carefully identify only their best talented officers. The rater was given a greater role in identifying strengths and weaknesses in sixteen different attribute and competency areas.
This version of the OER only lasted a few years until a completely revamped DA Form 67-10 was introduced in 2013-4 to improve the differentiation between top-tier and average performers. The relationship of the OER to Army leadership doctrine was followed in the design, and greater restrictions were placed on senior rater profiling. Four separate reports were introduced, designed to address evaluation needs in different grade cohorts. Other major innovations included the addition of a rater profile to complement the senior rater profile, and the introduction of the Electronic Entry System (EES) which, in theory, was to streamline the processing and submission of reports. If the historical patterns repeat, Army officers can expect to see further changes to the current DA Form 67-10 within the next few years.
Good Morning Wildcats!
Another part of Watch Us Wednesday;
The Army Reserve Best Warrior competition may be over but the Soldiers are taking more than just memories with them.
Check out the video below to learn about one of the most exciting events during #BestWarrior2018.
372nd Mobile Public Affairs Detachment
Good Morning Wildcats!
For today's Trivia Tuesday, we ask;
What can you do to be safe while doing what more than 66 million Americans do every Summer?